I have just copied this into Word and am working on revisions, adding stuff, and editing. If you want to send something, you can email me at cperryrun1@bellsouth.net . I'll check back here but if you add something after 3:15, put it in a red font color so that I know that it is new. I'll post questions at the top of this page. Our stuff looks great! You all did a wonderful job. Cindy 5/27 3:30 pm

Topic

Students of this generation, millennials as they have been termed, are much different than the students ten years ago. Technology saturates their lives, whether is it cell phones, the internet, or gaming devices. Much of their time spent out of school involves interacting with some sort of technological tool. Perhaps because of these technologies, students seem to have shorter attention spans and have a harder time focusing in traditional classroom settings. “Millennials absorb information quickly, in images and video as well as text, from multiple sources simultaneously. They operate at twitch speed, expecting instant responses and feedback.” (Downes) Because of this, traditional teaching methods, including the use of PowerPoint which is a fairly new technology, may seem dull and uninspiring to this generation. Teachers are finding it difficult to grasp the attention of their students as well as motivate them. Perhaps teachers need to include more of the tools that these students use in their every day lives to capture their interest and attention. Although most students use Web 2.0 tools for socializing, such as Facebook and Twitter, teachers might want incorporate similar tools into the curriculum to help increase student engagement and motivation, and in turn increase student achievement.

Regardless of the school or the grade level, teachers across the nation are being urged to utilize technology in the classroom. Teachers are being told to use technology for instructional delivery as well as student learning activities. Perhaps one of the more often used technology tools is Microsoft PowerPoint, or Keynote (an Apple equivalent). Many teachers are incorporating PowerPoint presentations into their curriculum for many reasons. “Attracted by the slick interface and easy learning, educators and students are employing the presentation software in classrooms in ever-increasing numbers. For some teachers, the computerized slide-show format is deposing the blackboard.” (Glasner, 2002) PowerPoint is easy to use for both teachers and students. It is software that is regularly available for teachers and students at school and often at home, and therefore it is often the technology tool of choice.

PowerPoint was first introduced nearly twenty five years ago. According to Atkinson, the initial release was in 1987, “originally designed for the Macintosh computer, the initial release was called Presenter,” which was changed to PowerPoint shortly after. PowerPoint soon became the new way of teaching, replacing traditional teaching methods such as chalkboard lectures and overhead transparencies. PowerPoint is used so often by teachers it may be considered the “new” traditional teaching method.

Although an increase of the use of PowerPoint means that more teachers are incorporating technology into the classroom, perhaps this is not the best solution. Many teachers are finding that PowerPoint does not have the same “aw” factor that it once had. In fact, many students find PowerPoint presentations uninteresting and boring. Perhaps the more teachers use PowerPoint, the less effective of a tool it is. Teachers are finding it harder and harder to capture their students’ interest and motivate the students to learn and perform. Although PowerPoint may have once gained the students’ attention, perhaps that time has come and gone. It may be time for teachers to discover what other tools there are that may captivate their students more than ever.

As more and more advances are made, the needs of students change as well. Research shows that traditional teaching methods are ineffective with millennials. Technology has changed how millennials learn, act, and socialize. They no longer have to rely on a teacher to learn something. Information is readily accessible at all times from varying locations throughout the world. Because of this, teachers need to change their pedagogy to involve a learner-centered classroom. One way of doing this may be by using Web 2.0 tools. According to Downes, “Web 2.0 provides choice, variety, collaboration, hands-on, and participatory learning opportunities; all the characteristics that are most attractive to today’s ‘net generation’ or ‘millenial’ student.”

Web 2.0 has been developing since 2003, changing the way the internet is viewed and used. Tools such as wikis and blogs have been around for years, yet it was not until recently that teachers began using them in the classroom. “These changes are sweeping across entire industries as a whole and are not unique to education; indeed, in many ways education has lagged behind some of these trends and is just beginning to feel their wake.” (Downes) Perhaps it is time for teachers to disregard the old and begin using the new.


Research problem

As new technologies become available to teachers and students, perhaps it is time to examine how effective old technologies are, and how new technologies may be able to replace what once was motivational. Unfortunately, there is has not been enough research measuring the effectiveness of PowerPoint on student motivation and achievement. There is even less research on the use of Web 2.0 tools in the classroom and how this affects student motivation and achievement. There is good reason to believe that a student’s motivation strongly impacts their overall academic success. There is also reason to believe that technology can increase study motivation, depending on how it is used in the classroom. Therefore, if the teacher incorporates the use of technology tools that the students are interested in using, perhaps their motivation and academic achievement will increase. The purpose of this study is to measure if and how the student use of PowerPoint impacts student motivation. This study will also measure if and how the use of Web 2.0 tools impacts student motivation. The data gathered will then be compared to see if PowerPoint or Web 2.0 tools are more effective as a motivational tool.


Review of the Literature

In education, there will always be trends. The trends are usually based around what new information has been discovered from a new research study. As new studies are published, new trends are put in place. Lately, the latest news seems to be saying that this generation learns differently because of the technology that is available, and therefore, teachers need to change their pedagogy to meet the learner’s needs. It seems that the technology wave may be changing the role of the teacher entirely. “The role of the teacher in the classroom is being transformed from that of the font of knowledge to an instructional manager helping to guide students through individualized learning pathways.” (Hawkins) To prepare for the latest trends and changes, teachers need to use technology to their benefit, creating learner based learning environments that utilizes technology as a learning tool.

According to Solomon and Schrum, Web 2.0: New Tools, New Schools, in 2006, the computer is the only technology product that teachers use more than grade K-12 students. Students spent more time than teachers using cell phones, handheld devices, digital cameras, video cameras, iPods, and video game players. Students are constantly chatting on computers, texting on cell phones, and engaged in online gaming. Even when they are in their bedrooms they aren’t alone.
Technology keeps them in constant contact with friends, neighbors, and global communities. Students are tech-savvy and the want to be learning in tech-savvy schools. What do students want from their schools? They want to use technology as they use it daily in their personal lives.


Creating a learner based classroom environment may be the key to motivation the students. Studies have shown that students with a high task value are more likely to succeed. According to Menager-Beeley, “students with high task choice value can be expected to persist in class,” and be more academically successful. This means that if students have a choice in what they are learning and how they learn it, they are more likely to be motivated to do the work, and in turn perform better. Teachers are starting to incorporate the use of Web 2.0 tools as part of the learner based curriculum. Perhaps changing the audience for which the student is performing can be motivating. Monroe state, “Whereas in the past, students wrote for one audience, their teacher, with Web 2.0, they are now writing for a much larger audience, potentially world wide audiences.” Web 2.0 offers many different types of communities in which student can share ideas, discuss topics, and learn from.


Many studies have been performed recently that indicate including various forms of new technology into the classroom does positively impact student motivation and performance. In a report by Beltramo involving 28 at-risk middle school students, there show a positive impact of the using video production to increase motivation and achievement. “The findings from this study indicated that participants were motivated by the project, valued career research, and learned the importance of education and role that math plays in people's daily lives.” (Beltramo) Incorporating technology into the curriculum resulted in a positive social change for the students and also made learning more meaningful and motivating.

In a report by Paino, a study involving first grade math students revealed the same results. In this study, computer software and white boards were used to teach math to first grade students, where half of the students participated in the technology implementation, the other half used traditional paper and pencil learning activities. According to the study, “The results of this study supported the idea that technology does increase academic achievement and increases student motivation when learning mathematics.” (Paino) Perhaps this is proof that teachers need to change their pedagogy based on new ways of teaching instead of traditional.

Checho reported about a study involving at-risk high school students. These students were involved in an technology integrated classroom using podcasts. The results of the study revealed increases in content knowledge of literature and grammar. The students positively responded to using podcasts as a way of learning and interacting. “Therefore, this study uncovered ways that at-risk students can participate in activities using digital technologies to promote learning.” (Checho) The study suggests that students more willing to use podcasts as a tool for learning over traditional methods, and in turn increasing knowledge and understanding of the content.

In a 2009 research study on the effects of using blogs and wikis motivate learners, Shifflet discovered that students who published on blogs, were more motivated because they had an authentic, interactive audience. Most students enjoyed writing on blogs instead of writing in traditional journals. The author shows the numerous reasons for teachers using wikis and blogs. Although the teachers may not be in 100% of agreement on the specific effects on students, all teachers report a variety of positive results on student learning, achievement, and motivation. Six out of eight of the teacher participants claimed that student blogs were more motivating for student learning. The two teachers who did not select motivation, said that either the students’ writing improved or the students performed better.

One of the purposes of having an authentic audience was to allow audience interactions with the writers. Higher student motivation was experienced by students’ who wrote on public wikis. Blogs allow users and audiences to make comments which created a more engaging experience for students. Web 2.0 tools provide the social interactions that students desire to make learning meaningful. It didn’t matter the original purpose of the assignment; using a wiki or blog produced higher quality work.


PowerPoint is an old technology tool. In a 2010 action research study involving five teachers who used wikis, blogs, and podcasting to enhance learning, Allen found that teachers went through a personal and professional technology transformation. The study shows the teachers change not only the way they developed student learning opportunities with more wikis, blogging, and podcasts, but the teachers used these same tools to become contributors. In the classroom, the teachers’ students used more authentic learning. Students were more engaged in learning and experienced higher achievement levels.

Similarly, teachers became involved in blogs, podcasts, and wikis to become more contributors to their professional world. They shared their expertise with other educators through blogs, podcasts, and wikis. This proved to be a supportive tool for teachers, who sometimes experience isolation from non-technology-savvy peers at their schools. Having the online learning support provided opportunities for staff development that were not available at their schools. This facilitated personal growth, developed confidence, and led to their transformation. The individuals who were most involved with blogging and podcasts were the ones who underwent the furthest transformation. If teachers are passionate about what they do, then it is easy for our students to become passionate, too. Exploring new Web 2.0 technologies with students takes extra commitment on the part of the instructor to understand how to use the tool as well as how to help students learn to use it. The innovation of working together on new Web 2.0 technologies could be a motivating experience for curious learners.


PLACEHOLDER for Jeff to add paragraph about Menager-Beeley and Clark papers on motivation. Explanation of CANE model. a reminder to myself :)


Research Questions

After reviewing the literature, it is clear that teachers are having a difficult time motivating students, yet motivation is the key to student achievement. Perhaps technology is creating a generation with a constant need to socialize and be connected, with instant answers to any type of question. Because of this, teachers are not as interesting as they were, before the internet was available. Regardless, teachers must find solutions to better motivate their students. Teachers need to reassess their current pedagogy based on the needs of the millennials. PowerPoint may not be the most current or the best tool for motivating these students. Perhaps teachers need to incorporate more Web 2.0 tools since this is what the millennials are interested in. This study is meant to investigate and research some of these problems and solutions. Specifically, this study will try to answer the questions listed in the chart below. The chart also indicates how the research will be conducted and analyzed.


Many studies have been performed recently that indicate including various forms of new technology into the classroom does positively impact student motivation and performance. In a report by Beltramo involving 28 at-risk middle school students, there show a positive impact of the using video production to increase motivation and achievement. “The findings from this study indicated that participants were motivated by the project, valued career research, and learned the importance of education and role that math plays in people's daily lives.” (Beltramo) Incorporating technology into the curriculum resulted in a positive social change for the students and also made learning more meaningful and motivating.
In a report by Paino, a study involving first grade math students revealed the same results. In this study, computer software and white boards were used to teach math to first grade students, where half of the students participated in the technology implementation, the other half used traditional paper and pencil learning activities. According to the study, “The results of this study supported the idea that technology does increase academic achievement and increases student motivation when learning mathematics.” (Paino) Perhaps this is proof that teachers need to change their pedagogy based on new ways of teaching instead of traditional.

Research Question
Design
Instrumentation
Analysis
Does the student use of PowerPoint presentations motivate
students to learn and perform?
Descriptive
Teacher survey and interview
Student survey
Qualitative Analysis of Data
Data will be presented within a Pie Graph to show percentages of survey and interview questions
Can Wikis be used as an alternative to PowerPoint?
Descriptive
Experimental
Teacher survey and interview
Student survey

Three Projects
Grading Rubric
Qualitative Analysis of Data
Data will be presented within a Pie Graph to show percentages of survey and interview questions

Quantitative Analysis of Data
Data will be present using a 3 bar Histogram to display the Wiki vs. PowerPoint scores of each group
Can Prezi be used as an alternative to PowerPoint?
Descriptive
Experimental
Teacher survey and interview
Student survey

Three Projects
Grading Rubric
Qualitative Analysis of Data
Data will be presented within a Pie Graph to show percentages of survey and interview questions

Quantitative Analysis of Data
Data will be present using a 3 bar Histogram to display the Prezi vs. PowerPoint scores of each group
Will substituting a Web 2.0 tool for a PowerPoint presentation yield
higher student academic performance?
Experimental
Three Projects
Grading Rubric
Quantitative Analysis of Data
Data will be present using a 3 bar Histogram to display the grading rubric data of overall student performances
Will substituting a Web 2.0 tool for a PowerPoint presentation yield
higher student motivation?
Experimental
Three Projects
Grading Rubric

~

Research Methods/Design

In this research study we are conducting an observational and experimental study evaluating the effectiveness of PowerPoint, Prezi, and Wiki on student motivation. The control group tool is PowerPoint because of its popularity in school instruction. Prezi and Wiki are both examples of our experimental group. Our goal is to observe noticeably changes in student motivation based on the use of these alternatives to PowerPoint. Our sample population is from an Art Appreciation course as well as the teachers of this course for teacher survey data. This is a large-format survey course, typical at major universities. It will consist of 150 undergraduates, primarily freshmen and sophomores, from various majors. Most are taking the course to satisfy a fine arts requirement. The university is a large state school in Columbia, SC. The students will be randomly assigned to 3 groups of 50 students each, designated A, B, and C.


Materials/Instrumentation.

First assignment: In an art appreciation course, a typical assignment is a report on an important artist, their works, and their influence. This project can easily incorporate text, images, and other media. This type of assignment was chosen because it doesn't favor one of the prospective tools over the others. Powerpoint, Wikis, and Prezi all have the ability to support text, images, diagrams, video and other multimedia although in different ways. In each stage of the study, the students are assigned the same project. Students are to research an important artist and their works. They are instructed to include:
  • basic biographical information
  • time frame
  • important political and social events during the artist's life
  • major works
  • influence

Students are required to include media beyond text. This media can include, but is not limited to:
  • still images (photos, sketches, diagrams, etc)
  • moving images (animation, video, etc.)
  • sound
  • narration
  • color
  • font

The report will be presented using the tool specified by the study (PowerPoint, Wiki, or Prezi). Students are to incorporate good design principles. Projects should utilize proper English grammar and be free of mechanical or factual error.
Since throughout the course of the study each student will create a project using each of the tools, we believe that we will be able to evaluate the influence the various tools have on the student’s motivation.

Second assignment:
Research a decade in the 1900's. Create a multimedia presentation to share with peers. Research should include information about the following:
  • Art and artists--What are their contributions? How did they effect the world?
  • Significant news/political headlines--What was going on politically during this time?
  • Music and musicians--
  • Significant sporting events or people
  • Technology News of the time period
Students are required to include media beyond text. This media can include, but is not limited to:
  • still images (photos, sketches, diagrams, etc)
  • moving images (animation, video, etc.)
  • sound
  • narration
  • color
  • font
Third assignment: Select two different artists from the same time period but different countries. After completing research, compare and contrast the artists considering the following:
  • compare and contrast basic background information for each artist
  • compare and contrast the their challenges
  • compare and contrast their contributions
  • compare and contrast their legacy
Students are required to include media beyond text. This media can include, but is not limited to:
  • still images (photos, sketches, diagrams, etc)
  • moving images (animation, video, etc.)
  • sound
  • narration
  • color
  • font
    Procedure
    At the beginning of the study, participants will be given a pre-study survey. The purpose of this survey is to determine the student experience with PowerPoint and Web 2.0 tools, as well as their interest and attitude toward them. (See the below for example survey questions.) The participants will be given a basic overview of the three tools being used in this study and how to access them. Microsoft PowerPoint is available in the school computer lab. Prezi and Wikis are available online using standard web browsers on the same computers. The students are provided with the web address of Prezi and several recommended Wiki hosting services.
    The study itself will proceed in three rounds. Participants are given the assignment described above. Students are free to choose the subject of their report, within the restriction that it must be a well-known artist. All students receive the same assignment, with the exception of the required delivery tool.

    Round 1 Group Assignments



Group
A
B
C
  • || Delivery Tool || PowerPoint || Wiki || Prezi Presentation ||
After completing the assignment, students complete a post-round survey. Where the questions pertain to a particular tool, the wording of this survey will be customized to each group. (See the below for example survey questions.)
  • The reports will be graded to judge the affect of each tool on academic performance and to determine if there is a correlation between motivation and performance. In order to ensure consistent grading, each of the projects will be graded using a numerical grading rubric. For the purposes of this study, the projects will be graded by the faculty instructor and two graduate student teaching assistants. Their scores will be averaged, with the instructor’s score weighted double the teaching assistant’s scores. (Teaching assistants in an art appreciation course are assumed to have a basic knowledge of art, artists, and art history)Final score = Average of: (Instructor Score * 2) + TA#1 Score + TA#2 Score
  • The study will continue thru two additional rounds so that each participant creates one project with each tool. Each round will include the project, grading via the rubric, and the post-round survey. The table below lists which tool each group will be using for the assigned projects.


Group A
Group B
Group C
  • || Round 1 || PowerPoint || Wiki || Prezi Presentation ||
  • || Round 2 || Prezi Presentation || PowerPoint || Wiki ||
  • || Round 3 || Wiki || Prezi Presentation || PowerPoint ||
  • In addition to the student surveys, teachers will also be surveyed and interviewed at the beginning and end of the study.
  • Survey
  • The primary purpose of the student survey is to determine their level of intrinsic motivation. Various survey questions were developed based on the The CANE (Commitment and Necessary Effort) Model of Motivation (Clark, 19??). The CANE model looks at the components that cause an individual to make an active commitment to completing a task. We pulled from this model six characteristics that go into our evaluation of motivation:
  • efficacy (can I do it?)
  • context (will I be permitted to do it?)
  • mood (how do I feel about it?)
  • utility (is the outcome beneficial to me?)
  • interest (the task has intrinsic value?)
  • importance (will this task make me more effective or more impressive to others?)

Individual student survey questions are directed at one of these characteristics and will be answer using a five-level Likert scale: Strongly disagree Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree
Sample Student questions:
efficacy I am confident in my ability to complete the task with the required tools.context I am pleased with the time, tools, and assistance that I had to complete this project in a satisfactory manner.mood I enjoyed this task.utility
Completing this assignment was beneficial to me.interest I was interested in the presentation tool used for this task.importance
Utilizing the presentation tool made me more effective.

Teacher Survey QuestionsHow would you rate your students' experiences using PowerPoint?How would you rate your students' motivation towards using PowerPoint?How did your students respond to using the Web 2.0 tools?How would you rate your students active engagement while using the Web 2.0 tools?
Teacher Interview QuestionsWhat type of response do get from students when they are asked to create PowerPoint presentation?What tool do you prefer your students use and why?

Data and Analysis
The research we will conduct evaluates the results of pre and post project teacher surveys, pre and post project student surveys, and the evaluations of the scores based on the project grading rubric. We will be using a sample survey for student and teacher data collection because it is the quickest way to collect meaningful data for a large population. We will be collecting data quantitatively and qualitatively (categorical). The qualitative or categorical data which separates the teacher and student responses will be taking from the survey and interview questions and placed into several categories. These responses will help separate the groups in to categories related to their initial feelings about the project, enjoyment while completing the project and their overall motivation during the project. The pre-project survey and interview questions are designed to label the student and student responses. The data for these pre-project questions will be displayed in a pie graph. A percentage will be calculated to show a trend in student and teacher responses. Post-project survey and interview questions (which are also categorical responses) will be displayed the same.
The second part of the data collection and analysis consists of quantitative variables. To achieve an overall conclusion of higher student performance and motivation, numerical values most be collected. Each of the three groups will complete three separate projects using PowerPoint, Prezi, and Wiki. Each of the projects will be graded using a numerical grading rubric (which will ensure that each group is evaluated exactly the same). The table below lists which project each group will be using for the assigned projects.

Group
First Project
Second Project
Third Project
1
PowerPoint
Prezi Presentation
Wiki
2
Wiki
PowerPoint
Prezi presentation
3
Prezi Presentation
wiki
PowerPoint
After each project scores will be evaluated and compared for each of the three groups. The quantitative data will be presented within a 3-bar histogram to compare the scores of each group. The same process, scoring, and evaluation will take place with project 2 and project 3. Histograms will be created again in project 2 and project 3 to compare scores for the groups. A final evaluation of scores will take place at the conclusion of the third project to compare the scores of the PowerPoint project, Prezi project, and the Wiki project for each group individually. This data will also be displayed within a 3-bar histogram to compare individual group data. The quantitative data from each graph will be used to draw comparisons of student performance and motivation between Web 2.0 tools and PowerPoint.

References
Atkinson, Max (19 August 2009). "The problem with PowerPoint". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/magazine/8207849.stm.

Beltramo, D.. Digital video production: A case study on motivating at-risk middle school math students. Ph.D. dissertation, Walden University, United States -- Minnesota. Retrieved May 26, 2010, from Dissertations & Theses: Full Text.(Publication No. AAT 3297173). http://proquest.umi.com.pallas2.tcl.sc.edu/pqdweb?index=17&did=1472132971&SrchMode=1&sid=2&Fmt=2&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1274913868&clientId=21321


Checho, C.. The effects of podcasting on learning and motivation: A mixed method study of at-risk high school students. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Nevada, Reno, United States -- Nevada. Retrieved May 26, 2010, from Dissertations & Theses: Full Text.(Publication No. AAT 3289459). http://proquest.umi.com.pallas2.tcl.sc.edu/pqdweb?index=35&did=1453185481&SrchMode=1&sid=4&Fmt=2&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1274917027&clientId=21321

Clark, R. E. (1999) The CANE model of motivation to learn and to work: A two-stage process of goal commitment and effort. Lowyck, J. (Ed.) Trends in Corporate Training. Leuven Belgium, University of Leuven Press.
http://www-rcf.usc.edu/~clark/Work%20in%20Progress/CANE%20Motivation%20Theory.htm

Downes, Stephen. E-Learning 2.0. Retrived July 28, 2007 from http://www.elearnmag.org/subpage.cfm?section=articles&article=29-1

Glasner, J. (2002) Of Powerpoint and pointlessness. Wired.com. Sept. 3, 2002. Acquired (5/24/2010) from
http://www.wired.com/culture/education/news/2002/09/54675

Hawkins, R. (2010) 10 global yrends in ICT and education for 2010 and beyond. EduTech Blog. January 26, 2010. Acquired (May 25, 2010) from
http://edutechdebate.org/2010-ict4e-trends/10-global-trends-in-ict-and-education-for-2010-and-beyond/

Menager-Beeley, R. (2001) Student success in web based distance learning: measuring motivation to identify at risk students and improve retention in Online Classes. Webnet. Acquired (May 25, 2010) at
http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/1a/36/1e.pdf

Monroe, B. (2006). Can We Talk? Communication Technologies, Social Informatics, and Systemic Change. Technology and Education: Issues in Administration, Policy, and Application in K12 Schools , Volume 8, 213-229


Paino, T.. Effects of technology on student achievement and motivation in mathematics. M.A.S.E. dissertation, Caldwell College, United States -- New Jersey. Retrieved May 26, 2010, from Dissertations & Theses: Full Text.(Publication No. AAT 1463856). http://proquest.umi.com.pallas2.tcl.sc.edu/pqdweb?index=5&did=1730465951&SrchMode=1&sid=1&Fmt=6&VInst=PROD&VType

Shifflet, R.. The instructional use of blogs and wikis for K--12 students. Ed.D. dissertation, Illinois State University, United States -- Illinois. Retrieved May 24, 2010, from Dissertations & Theses: Full Text.(Publication No. AAT 3335621).
http://proquest.umi.com.library.usca.edu:2048/pqdweb?did=1619393581&sid=1&Fmt=2&clientId=67505&RQT=309&VName=PQD